Theory, Models and Simulations
Paper Title Page
MOB02 Simulation and Detection of the Helical Ion-Paths in a Small Cyclotron 21
  • C.R. Wolf
    FZJ, Jülich, Germany
  • M. Prechtl, R. Rueß
    HS Coburg, Coburg, Germany
  The small cyclotron COLUMBUS, which was developed by Gymnasium Ernestinum in cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences of Coburg, is a particle accelerator for education and teaching purposes. Since its inception, the cyclotron has been under continuous development and is part of the newly established student research center of the University of Applied Sciences of Coburg. This cyclotron accelerates hydrogen ions; the positions of them are registered after a few revolutions by a faraday cup which is moved across their paths by a Linear Translator. This thesis presents a MathLab Simulation of the orbits of the accelerated Hydrogen ions. In contrast to simpler models, which approximate the orbits in the acceleration gap by a straight line, this simulation takes into account the deflection by the magnetic field to get a more realistic result for the initial paths and the positions on which the ions are registered.  
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On Uncertainty Quantification in Particle Accelerator Modelling  
  • A. Adelmann
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  Using a cyclotron based model problem, we demonstrate for the first time [1] the applicability and usefulness of a uncertainty quantification (UQ) approach in order to construct surrogate models for quantities such as emittance, energy spread but also the halo parameter, and construct a global sensitivity analysis together with error propagation and L2 error analysis. The model problem is selected in a way that it represents a template for general high intensity particle accelerator modelling tasks. The presented physics problem has to be seen as hypothetical, with the aim to demonstrate the usefulness and applicability of the presented UQ approach and not solving a particulate problem. The proposed UQ approach is based on sparse polynomial chaos expansions and relies on a small number of high fidelity particle accelerator simulations. Within this UQ framework, the identification of most important uncertainty sources is achieved by performing a global sensitivity analysis via computing the so-called Sobols' indices. [1] A. Adelman, arXiv:1509.08130v6, 2016  
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A Precise 3D Beam Dynamics Model of the PSI Injector II  
  • A.M. Kolano
    University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom
  • A. Adelmann, C. Baumgarten
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • R.J. Barlow
    IIAA, Huddersfield, United Kingdom
  A precise beam dynamics model of the PSI Injector II operating at 2.2 mA is presented, including 3D space charge, and the collimation system. A particle distribution with an intensity of 9.5 mA (DC) is injected into the central region, shaped by a sophisticated collimator system. This defines the initial condition for the subsequent formation of a round stationary bunch. The intensity limits are estimated based on this model, additionally supported by an idealised collimator model and measurements. The production configuration current scales to the power of four with the beam size setting the limit to approximately 3 mA. Further analysis of an upgraded configuration (adding two new cavities) suggests that intensities of 5 mA could be produced with an adjusted collimation scheme. The precise beam dynamics model is based on the OPAL (Object Oriented Parallel Accelerator Library) simulation code, a tool for charged-particle optics calculations in large accelerator structures and beam lines including 3D space charge.  
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MODM01 Design Study of the 250 MeV Isochronous Superconducting Cyclotron Magnet 33
  • W. Chen, Z.K. Liang, X. Liu
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology,, Hubei, People's Republic of China
  • K. Fan, K.F. Liu, B. Qin
    HUST, Wuhan, People's Republic of China
  Superconducting cyclotron is an optimum choice to deliver high quality continuous wave (CW) proton beams for proton therapy with its compactness and power saving. Field isochronism and tune optimization are the two crucial factors of cyclotrons during the magnet design. This paper is concentrated on the superconducting magnet design, mainly including the spiral magnet, isochronous field and the tune optimization. The main parameters and some features of the machine will be presented.  
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MODM02 Magnet Optimization and Beam Dynamic Calculation of the 18 MeV Cyclotron by TOSCA and CYCLONE Codes 36
  • N. Rahimpour Kalkhoran, H. Afarideh, M. Afkhami Karaei, S. Sabounchi
    AUT, Tehran, Iran
  • M. Ghergherehchi
    SKKU, Suwon, Republic of Korea
  Designing and manufacturing of the 18 MeV cyclotron has been started for producing H for applications in Posi-tron Emission Tomography (PET) radioisotopes at Amirkabir University Of Technology. Up to this point, there were 2 steps in magnet design: Initial design and optimization processes. The AVF structure with hill and valley was selected for getting strong axial focusing in magnet design and achieving up to 18MeV energy for the particle. After finishing the initial design, optimization process in magnet design was started for achieving the best coincidence in magnetic field. Checking the beam dynamic of the particle is one of the most important and necessary steps after magnet simulation. The phenomenon which confirms simulated magnet validity is obtaining reasonable particle trajectory. This paper focused on the optimization process in magnet design and simulation of the beam dynamic. Some results which ensure a particle can be accelerated up to 18 MeV energy, are presented. All magnetic field calculation in whole magnet was calculated by OPERA-3D(TOSCA) code. Also beam dynamic analysis by applying magnetic field data from the magnet simulation was done in CYCLONE code.  
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MODM03 Equivalent Circuit Model of Cyclotron RF System 39
  • M. Mohamadian, H. Afarideh, S. Sabounchi, M. Salehi
    AUT, Tehran, Iran
  • M. Ghergherehchi
    SKKU, Suwon, Republic of Korea
  Cyclotron cavity modeled via electromagnetic circuits in the desired frequency. The design performed according to resonator basis and also cyclotron acceleration requirements with ADS software and compared to simulations made by the CST microwave studio. The scattering parameters obtained for main resonators of the cyclotron and Dee parts as a diaphragm for each of cavity sections and also for the whole structure. All the characteristics modeled and calculated by the electromagnetic rules and theory of resonators from circuit model. Then it analysed with numerical methods for bench-marking. Finally, it shows that the circuit model able to modeled accurately the cyclotron cavity and especially it can estimate precisely the structure parameters without any time consuming numerical method simulations.  
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MOP02 Physical Design of External Two-Stage Beam Chopping System on the TR 24 Cyclotron 45
  • J. Stursa, M. Cihak, M. Gotz, V. Zach
    NPI, Řež near Prague, Czech Republic
  We briefly introduce a new Cyclotron Laboratory of the Nuclear Physics Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences with the new cyclotron TR 24 which was commissioned in October 2015. One of the planned utilization of TR 24 beams is a generation of high-intense fast neutrons fluxes with potential implementation of a chopping system for spectrometric measurements of neutron energy by the Time-of-Flight method. For this purpose, physical design of a new ion-optical beam line was completed as well as comprehensive study of an external fast chopping system on this beam line. A set of home-made programs DtofDeflect have been developed for this system consisting of the first chopper powered by sinusoidal voltage and the second chopper powered by pulse voltage. The programs allow to find the optimum geometric and voltage parameters of the system by the means of mathematical simulations. The chopping system can provide the external 24 MeV proton beam with 2.3 ns pulse length at a repetition period of 236 ns in order to comply with the required pulse length to the repetition period ratio of 1:100.  
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MOP03 Developed Numerical Code Based on the Effects of Space Charge in Central Region of 10 MeV Cyclotron 49
  • M. Afkhami Karaei, H. Afarideh, S. Azizpourian, M. Mousavinia, R. Solhju, F. Taft
    AUT, Tehran, Iran
  • J.-S. Chai, M. Ghergherehchi
    SKKU, Suwon, Republic of Korea
  To study of space charge effects in 10 MeV cyclotron of Amirkabir University of Technology the C++ code is developed. This cyclotron is designed to accelerate H up to 10MeV energy. The important components of cyclotron that effect on calculations of space charge include four sector magnets, 2 RF cavities with 71MHz frequency and internal PIG ion source. Equations of motion and effects of charged particles in electromagnetic field of accelerator are integrated in C++ code. The conventional method, 4-order Runge-Kutta, is used to solve the equations. The results of calculations show space charge effects of beam particles on each other in accelerating process.  
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MOP04 SPES Cyclotron Beamlines 53
  • D. Campo, P. Antonini, A. Calore, A. Lombardi, M. Maggiore, L. Pranovi
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) facility purposes are the production of radioactive beams (RIBs) by ISOL technique, the production and the research on innovative radioisotopes and experiments with high intensity neutron beams. For these reasons the 70p cyclotron, designed by BEST Cyclotron Systems Ins., has been installed at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro: it is a machine able to produce a beam current up to 700 μA shared into two extraction channels. Beams at the energy values of 35 MeV, 50 MeV and 70 MeV have to be transported to the experimental areas with specific properties and minimizing the beam losses. Here, the main features of the needed beamlines are described.  
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MOP05 An Air Ionization Chamber Simulation using Monte Carlo Method 57
  • S.G. Hou, Shizhong. An, Z.W. Liu, G.F. Song, F. Wang, L.P. Wen, T.J. Zhang
    CIAE, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  The CYCIAE-100 cyclotron has been built at CIAE, designed to achieve 200 μA protons at 100 MeV and deliver them to several experimental targets. To achieve this goal and protect the machine from excessive radiation activation, an uncontrolled loss criteria of 1uA has been specified. Previous calculation for radiation shielding showed that high neutron and gamma were produced under this condition. To measure the high energy gamma ray(about 2 MeV ) at machine running and void damage by the prompt radiation, an air ionization chamber was designed to fulfill this goal. A Geant4 program was developed to simulate the energy response of detectors, the EM filed data was also taken into consideration in the programl. The simulation results indicate that the energy response linearity satisfies the requirement of the project specification.  
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MOP06 Physical Design of the Extraction Trim-Rods in a 230 MeV Superconducting Cyclotron 61
  • D.S. Zhang, M. Li, C. Wang, J.J. Yang, T.J. Zhang
    CIAE, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  Two electrostatic deflectors are used for beam extraction of the 230 MeV superconducting cyclotron CYCIAE-230, which is under development at CIAE. Resonance crossing and processional motion are introduced by a first harmonic bump of main field during the beam dynamics design to increase the turn separation and accordingly the extraction efficiency. Four trim-rods of variable depth are employed to generate the desirable field bump for their stability, the amplitude and azimuth of first harmonic bump can be adjusted with different size and depth of trim-rods. However, effect on isochronous field in acceleration region is followed by trim-rods in practice, therefore the base depth of trim-rods need to be designed and re-shimming procedure of main magnet model need to be implemented interactively. The effect of trim-rods and isochronous field production by a new model will be presented in this paper.  
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MOP08 Investigation of Minimized Consumption Power about 10 MeV Cyclotron for Acceleration of Negative Hydrogen 64
  • J.C. Lee, J.-S. Chai, Kh.M. Gad, M. Ghergherehchi, D.H. Ha, H.S. Kim, S.C. Mun, H. Namgoong
    SKKU, Suwon, Republic of Korea
  Funding: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP:Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning) (No. NRF-2015M2B2A8A10058096).
SKKUCY-10 cyclotron with 10 MeV particle energy was designed with purpose of production about fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG). Design strategy was maximization of accelerating voltage in order to secure the turn separa-tion. Magnet had deep valley type, RF cavity had four stems and one RF power coupler. There was internal ion source for compact design of cyclotron. Specification of cyclotron was analysed by simulating particle dynamics for central region and whole system. AVF cyclotron had 83.2 MHz of radio frequency, 1.36 T of average magnetic field, 40 kV of main accelerating voltage. Phase slip between RF and beam was less than 15 degrees, minimum turn separation was over 2 mm. Specifications of both single beam analysis of reference particle and multi-beam analysis of bunch of particles were calculated by using Cyclone v8.4 and CST-Particle studio codes.
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MOP09 Simulation Code Development for High-Power Cyclotron 68
  • C.U. Choi, M. Chung
    UNIST, Ulsan, Republic of Korea
  • G. Hahn
    KIRAMS, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  • J. Lee, T.-Y. Lee, S. Shin
    PAL, Pohang, Republic of Korea
  A high power cyclotron is a good candidate as a driver of the accelerator driven system for the transmutation of long lived nuclear wastes. In this work, a simulation code has been developed for describing the beam dynamics in the high power cyclotron. By including higher order terms in transverse transfer matrix and space charge effects, we expect to describe the beam motion more accurately. The present code can describe equivalent orbit at each energy, calculate the tunes, and also perform multi-particle tracking. We report the initial results of the code for the simulation of a 13 MeV cyclotron. Lastly, an upgrade plan is discussed to add more features and to increase calculating efficiency.  
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MOP10 Numerical Orbit Tracking in 3D Through the Injector Cyclotron for Heavy Ions at iThemba LABS 71
  • J.G. De Villiers, J.I. Broodryk, J.L. Conradie, F. Nemulodi, R.W. Thomae
    iThemba LABS, Somerset West, South Africa
  • J.J. Yang, T.J. Zhang
    CIAE, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  Funding: Jointly supported by the National Research Foundation of South Africa (No. 92793) and National Science Foundation of China (No. 11461141003).
The RF and magnetic fields of the injector cyclotron (SPC2) were modelled in 3D with finite element methods, using OPERA-3d, in an effort to determine the cause of the relative poor beam transmission through the machine in the 8-turn mode. Simulation of the particle motion in SPC2 was done using machine operational parameters for acceleration of 20Ne3+. The isochronous magnetic field is calculated from a complete cyclotron magnet model and the electrostatic field distribution from a dee electrode model, using TOSCA. The modelling of the high frequency resonance conditions of the resonators with SOPRANO-EV provided the relative variation of the electric field profiles in the acceleration gaps. A command line program was developed to combine the information of the three models and implement time-dependent control of the electrostatic fields during the particle tracking. In addition, based on calculated data from OPERA-3D, the parallel particle-in-cell code OPAL-CYCL was used to calculate a particle orbit for comparison with OPERA-3d. The models, methods and calculated results will be presented.
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MOP11 Injection Line Studies for the SPC2 Cyclotron at iThemba LABS 75
  • F. Nemulodi, J.I. Broodryk, J.L. Conradie, J.G. De Villiers, W. Duckitt, D.T. Fourie, J. Mira, R.W. Thomae, M.J. Van Niekerk
    iThemba LABS, Somerset West, South Africa
  • J.J. Yang, T.J. Zhang
    CIAE, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  The transmission efficiency of some ion beams through the second solid-pole injector cyclotron (SPC2) at iThemba LABS requires improvement. In order to understand the beam optics in the injection line, and match the beam to the acceptance of the cyclotron, the beam envelope behaviour from the beginning of injection-line to the inside of the SPC2 cyclotron was investigated with different simulation programs. The transverse effects were taken into account by the beam transport codes TRANSOPTR and TRANSPORT, while the multi particle simulation code OPAL was used to include space-charge effects. Simulations of the effect of an additional buncher, operating at the second harmonic, on the transmission of the beam of charged particles through the cyclotron were made.  
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MOP22 Simulation of Optimum Thickness and Configuration of 10 MeV Cyclotron Shield 110
  • S. Azizpourian, H. Afarideh, M. Afkhami Karaei, M. Mousavinia
    AUT, Tehran, Iran
  • F. Abbasi Davani
    Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
  Baby Cyclotrons that made in Self-shield type have been employed for use in Medical center for the diagnosis of cancer diseases by positron emission tomography (PET) system. Here in we have done a discussion on gamma and neutron dose rates at a distance of one meter outside of the cyclotron shielding. This shield consist of Lead, polyethylene borated (10% Boron) layers from inside to outside respectively. With increasing the thickness of lead and polyethylene we will see a decrease in the gamma and neutron dose which received by the water phantom at a distance of one meter outside from the surface of the shield of the cyclotron. Note that the gamma and neutron dose at the beginning (without any shielding) was on the order of several thousand μSv per hour that by achieve to a certain amount of thickness of the shield, the dose was reduced to below of the limited level. In this study, the MCNPX Code has been used. In MCNPX Code that used the variance reduction techniques for decreasing relative errors of calculation which was a good method for this case study.  
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WEA01 Some Examples of Recent Progress of Beam-Dynamics Studies for Cyclotrons 244
  • W.J.G.M. Kleeven
    IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
  Two subjects are highlighted. The first is the problem of high space charge effects in cyclotrons. The second is the the progress in development of tools and simulations for industrial and medical cyclotrons at IBA.  
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WEA02 Simulation of the Beam Dynamics in the Axial Injection Beam Line of FLNR JINR DC280 Cyclotron 251
  • N.Yu. Kazarinov, I.A. Ivanenko
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
  DC280 is novel cyclotron which is created at the FLNR JINR. It allows to accelerate the ions of elements from Helium to Uranium with the mass to charge ratio in the range of 4 to 7.5 providing ion currents up to 10 pμA. The simulation of ion beam dynamics in the high voltage axial injection beam line of DC280 cyclotron is presented. One part of the injection system is placed at the HV platform and other part is in the grounded yoke of the DC-280 magnet. The 3D electromagnetic field maps of the focusing solenoids, analyzing magnet, accelerating tube and spherical electrostatic deflector are used during this simulation. The calculated efficiency of ion beam transportation is equal to 100%  
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WEA03 Space-charge Simulation of TRIUMF 500 MeV Cyclotron 254
  • T. Planche, R.A. Baartman, I.V. Bylinskii, Y.-N. Rao
    TRIUMF, Canada's National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Vancouver, Canada
  Funding: TRIUMF also receives federal funding via a contribution agreement through the National Research Council of Canada.
We present a method to improve computation efficiency of space charge simulations in cyclotrons. This method is particularly efficient for simulating long bunches where length is large compared to both transverse size and turn separation. We show results of application to space charge effects in the TRIUMF 500 MeV cyclotron.
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Update on OPAL  
  • A. Adelmann, A. Gsell, V. Rizzoglio
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • Y. Ineichen
    IBM Research - Zurich, Rueschlikon, Switzerland
  • C.J. Metzger-Kraus
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • X. Pang, S.J. Russell
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  • C.T. Rogers, S.L. Sheehy
    STFC/RAL/ASTeC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, United Kingdom
  • S.L. Sheehy
    JAI, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • C. Wang, J.J. Yang
    CIAE, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  • D. Winklehner
    MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  OPAL (Object Oriented Parallel Accelerator Library) is a open source tool for charged-particle optics calculations in accelerator structures and beam lines including 3D space charge, short range wake-fields, 1D coherent synchrotron radiation and particle matter interaction. OPAL admits simulations of any scale, from the laptop to the largest HPC clusters. OPAL has a fast FFT based direct solver and an iterative solver with AMR, able to handle efficiently exact boundary conditions on complex geometries. We will discuss new capabilities such as Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) support, turning your workstation into a super computer, time dependent fields necessary for modelling FFAGs, synchrotrons and synchro-cyclotrons and the creation of matched distributions with linear space charge.  
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