Operations and Upgrades
Paper Title Page
MOA02 Upgrade of the LNS Superconducting Cyclotron for Beam Power Higher than 2-5 kW 7
  • L. Calabretta, A. Calanna, G. Cuttone, G. D'Agostino, D. Rifuggiato, A.D. Russo
    INFN/LNS, Catania, Italy
  The LNS Superconducting Cyclotron has been in operation for more than 20 years, delivering to users a considerable variety of ion species from H to Pb, with energy in the range 10 to 80 A MeV. Up to now the maximum beam power has been limited to 100 W due to the beam dissipation in the electrostatic deflectors. To fulfill the users request, aiming to study rare processes in Nuclear Physics, the beam power has been planned to be increased up to 2-10 kW for ions with mass lower than 40 a.m.u., to be extracted by stripping. This development will maintain the present performance of the machine, i.e. the existing extraction mode will be maintained for all the ion species allowed by the operating diagram. To achieve this goal, a significant refurbishing operation of the cyclotron is needed, including a new cryostat with new superconducting coils, a new extraction channel with a large vertical gap, additional penetrations to host new magnetic channels and new compensation bars. Moreover the vacuum in the acceleration chamber is planned to be improved by replacing the liners and the trim coils. A general description of the refurbishing project will be presented.  
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MOC01 Radiation Damage of Components in the Environment of High-Power Proton Accelerators 24
  • D.C. Kiselev, R.M. Bergmann, R. Sobbia, V. Talanov, M. Wohlmuther
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  At high power accelerators, radiation damage becomes an issue particularly for components which are hit directly by the beam, like targets and collimators. Protons and secondary particles change the microscopic (lattice) structure of the materials, which macroscopically affects physical and mechanical properties. Examples are the decrease of thermal conductivity and ductility as well as dimensional changes. However, the prediction of these damage effects and their evolution in this harsh environment is highly complex as they strongly depend on parameters such as the irradiation temperature of the material, and the energy and type of particle inducing the damage. The so-called term "displacements per atom" (DPA) is an attempt to quantify the amount of radiation induced damage and to compare the micro- and macroscopic effects of radiation damage caused by different particles at different energies. In this talk, the basics for understanding of the mechanisms of radiation damage will be explained. The definition and determination of DPA and its limitations will be discussed. Measurements and examples of the impact of radiation damage on accelerator components will be presented.  
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TUA02 Challenges in Fast Beam Current Control Inside the Cyclotron for Fast Beam Delivery in Proton Therapy 126
  • S. Psoroulas, C. Bula, P. Fernandez Carmona, G. Klimpki, D. Meer, D.C. Weber
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • D.C. Weber
    University of Zurich, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
  Funding: G. Klimpki's work is supported by the "Giuliana and Giorgio Stefanini Foundation"
The COMET cyclotron* at PSI has been successfully used to treat patients with static tumors using the spot scanning technique, i.e. sequentially irradiating different positions inside the tumor volume. Irradiation time for each position ranges from micro- to milliseconds, with total treatment duration of about a minute. For some tumors (e.g. lung) physiological motion (e.g. respiration) interferes with the scanning motion of the beam, lowering treatment quality**. For such mobile tumors, we are developing a new technique called continuous line scanning (CLS), aiming at reducing treatment time by more than 50%. In CLS, dose rate should stabilize (within few percent) within tenths of a millisecond. We thus implemented a first prototype for fast, real-time beam control: a PID controller sets the internal electrostatic vertical deflector of the accelerator, regulating the beam current output based on the instantaneous current measured just before the patient and the knowledge of the transmission from the accelerator to the patient. In pre-clinical experiments, we achieved good control of the global dose delivered; open issues will be tackled in the next version of the controller.
*Schippers, J. M., et al (2007). NUCL INSTRUM METH B, 261(1-2), 773–776.
**Phillips, M. H., et al (1992). PMB 37(1), 223–233.
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TUA03 New Time Structures Available at the HZB Cyclotron 130
  • A. Denker, J. Bundesmann, T. Damerow, T. Fanselow, D. Hildebrand, U. Hiller, C. Rethfeldt, J. Röhrich
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  While most of the beam time of the cyclotron is used for proton therapy of ocular melanomas, an increasing amount of beam time is used for experiments. In response to a growing demand on time structures a new pulse suppressor was developed. This was necessary as our cyclotron was originally designed for heavy ions, thus limiting us to repetition rates of 75 kHz for light ions. The pulse suppression is now accomplished completely on the low-energy side, making the pulse suppressor on the high energy side, which was needed for single pulses, superfluous. With this new pulse suppressor the repetition rate of the pulse may be varied from 2 MHz down to 1 Hz or less. The pulse length can be freely chosen from a quasi-continuous beam to single pulses with a pulse width less than 1 ns. The pulses are measured either with a specially developed Faraday cup or non-destructively with a pick-up. The extraction of single pulses surveys very precisely if single turn extraction is achieved. The set-up of the pulse suppressor, measurements on the time structures for various beams and examples of their experimental use will be presented.  
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TUA04 Recent Improvements in Beam Delivery with the TRIUMF's 500 MeV Cyclotron 133
  • I.V. Bylinskii, R.A. Baartman, K. Jayamanna, T. Planche, Y.-N. Rao
    TRIUMF, Canada's National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Vancouver, Canada
  TRIUMF's 500 MeV H Cyclotron, despite its 44 years age is under continuous development. Many aspects of beam delivery have been improved over the last few years. Regular 3-week cusp source filament exchange cycle has advanced to multi-months due to greatly improved filament life time. Fine source tuning allowed beam intensity rise in support of routine extraction of 300 uA of protons. The injection line model has been fully correlated with online measurements that enabled its tuning and matching to the emittance defining slits and the cyclotron entrance. Cyclotron routinely produces 3 simultaneous high intensity beams (~100 uA each). Multiple techniques have been developed to maintain extracted beams intensity stability within ± 1%. Record extraction foil life times in excess of 500 mA-hours have been demonstrated with highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite foil material and improvements in foil holder. Beam rastering on ISOL target allowed higher yields. A single user extraction at 100 MeV was achieved by applying phase slip and deceleration inside the cyclotron.  
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TUC01 100 MeV H Cyclotron Development and 800 MeV Proton Cyclotron Proposal 149
  • T.J. Zhang, J.J. Yang
    CIAE, Beijing, People's Republic of China
  Since the last cyclotron conference in Vancouver, significant milestones have been achieved on the BRIF (Beijing Radioactive-Ion Beam Facility) project. On July 4, 2014 the first 100MeV proton beam was extracted from the H compact cyclotron. The cyclotron passed beam stability test with beam current of 25 μA for about 9 hours operation. In the year of 2015, the first radioactive ion beam of K-38 was produced by the ISOL system, and the beam current on the internal target of the 100 MeV cyclotron was increased to 720 μA. In the year of 2016, the cyclotron was scheduled to provide 1000 hours beam time for proton irradiation experiment, single-particle effects study and proof-of-principle trial on the proton radiography technology. It is also planed to build a specific beam line for proton therapy demonstration on the 100 MeV machine. In this talk, I will also introduce our new proposal of an 800 MeV, room temperature separate-sector proton cyclotron, which is proposed to provide 3~4 MW proton beam for versatile applications, such as neutron and neutrino physics, proton radiography and nuclear waste treatment.  
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WEB01 A New Digital Low-level RF Control System for Cyclotrons 258
  • W. Duckitt, J. Abraham, J.L. Conradie, M.J. Van Niekerk
    iThemba LABS, Somerset West, South Africa
  • T.R. Niesler
    Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa
  Stable control of amplitude and phase of the radio frequency (RF) system is critical to the operation of cyclotrons. It directly influences system performance, operability, reliability and beam quality. iThemba LABS operates 13 RF systems between 8 and 81 MHz and at power levels of 50 W to 150 kW. A critical drive has been to replace the 30 year old analog RF control system with modern technology. To this effect a new generic digital low-level RF control system has been designed. The system is field programmable gate array (FPGA) based and is capable of synthesizing RF signals between 5 and 100 MHz in steps of 1 μHz. It can achieve a closed-loop amplitude stability of greater than 1/10000 and a closed-loop phase stability of less than 0.01°. Furthermore, the system is fully integrated with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) and all system and diagnostic parameters are available to the Control System Studio clients. Three prototypes of the system have been in operation since November 2014. A general analysis of RF control systems as well as the methodology of design, implementation, operational performance and future plans for the system is presented.  
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Energy Efficiency of Cyclotrons  
  • J. Grillenberger, M. Seidel
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  The growing global energy consumption challenges the energy efficiency of any technology and thus also of research facilities. Many large research facilities are based on accelerators that provide a primary beam for secondary particle generation but require several MWs of power from the grid. The goal of each new generation of accelerator facilities is to achieve higher flux, rates, brightness, and luminosity which typically requires greater power. A discussion on improving the energy efficiency of existing and, in particular, future accelerators inevitably presents itself. In this paper, the energy efficiency of the cyclotron based PSI-proton accelerator facility will be discussed. It will be demonstrated that a cyclotron is the machine of choice for accelerator driven systems due to its comparatively high energy efficiency. Furthermore, it is also shown that by adopting more efficient magnet and RF technologies, an even higher energy efficiency may be achieved.  
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THA02 New Developments at iThemba LABS 274
  • J.L. Conradie, L.S. Anthony, S. Baard, R.A. Bark, A.H. Barnard, J.I. Broodryk, J.C. Cornell, J.G. De Villiers, H. Du Plessis, W. Duckitt, D.T. Fourie, P.G. Gardiner, M.E. Hogan, I.H. Kohler, C. Lussi, R.H. McAlister, J. Mira, H.W. Mostert, F. Nemulodi, G. Pfeiffer, M. Sakildien, G.F. Steyn, N. Stodart, R.W. Thomae, M.J. Van Niekerk, P.A. van Schalkwyk
    iThemba LABS, Somerset West, South Africa
  • A. Andrighetto, A. Monetti, G.P. Prete, M. Rossignoli
    INFN/LNL, Legnaro (PD), Italy
  iThemba LABS has been in operation for more than 30 years and is now at a stage at which refurbishment and ' in some cases ' replacement of the infrastructure and critical components is required. The replacement and refurbish-ment of the cooling system, which include the cooling tow-ers and chillers, the 4.4-MVA uninterruptable power sup-ply batteries and other critical components, are discussed. Progress with a facility for low-energy radioactive ion beams will be reported on. A proposal to remove radioiso-tope production from the separated sector cyclotron (SSC) and the production of the future radioisotopes with a com-mercial 70-MeV cyclotron to make more beam time avail-able for nuclear physics research with the SSC will also be discussed. Developments on our electron cyclotron reso-nance ion sources, the PIG ion source and low-level digital RF control system have also been carried out. Good pro-gress with integration of the existing control system to an EPICS control system has been made. The adoption of EtherCAT as our new industrial communication standard has enabled integration with much off-the-shelf motion, actuator and general interface hardware.  
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THA03 Development of FLNR JINR Heavy Ions Accelerator Complex (DRIBs III) 278
  • B. Gikal, S.L. Bogomolov, S.N. Dmitriev, G.G. Gulbekyan, I.A. Ivanenko, I.V. Kalagin, N.Yu. Kazarinov, Y.T. Oganessian, N.F. Osipov, S.V. Pashchenko
    JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia
  The cyclotrons of U-400, U-400M, and IC-100 are in operation in the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions for implementation of scientific program and applied research. Total operation time of these accelerators is about 15000 hours per year. One of the basic scientific programs in FLNR is the synthesis of new elements that demands intensive beams of heavy ions. Now U-400 is capable to provide long-term experiments on 48Ca beam with intensity of 1 pμA. The high-intensity DC-280 cyclotron has been developed in FLNR in order to increase the 48Ca beam intensity up to 10 pμA for this task. The cyclotron U-400 has been in operation since 1978. The U-400 modernization into U-400R is planned to start after finishing DC-280 project. At the U-400M cyclotron, we plan to increase the ion energy of the extracted beam, which now is limited by 55 MeV/nucleon. The IC-100 is used in the laboratory as a specialized machine for applied research on the heavy ion beams with energies of 1 - 1.2 MeV/nucleon.  
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THA04 Status of the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute 281
  • D.P. May, J. Arje, L.N. Gathings, B.T. Roeder, A. Saastamoinen
    Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute, College Station, Texas, USA
  • F.P. Abegglen, G. Chubaryan, H.L. Clark, G.J. Kim, G. Tabacaru
    Texas A&M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, Texas, USA
  Funding: U. S. Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG02-93ER40773
Both the K500 superconducting cyclotron and the older K150 (88”) conventional cyclotron at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute are in constant use for both experimental physics and chemistry as well as for customer-based, radiation-effects testing. In addition, an upgrade program using the K150 as a driver for the production of radioactive beams to then be accelerated to intermediate energies by the K500 Cyclotron is ongoing. Both a light-ion guide and a heavy-ion guide are being developed for this purpose. The status of the cyclotrons and of the associated electron-cyclotron-resonance ion sources and the H-minus ion source used on the K150 as well as the status of the upgrade are presented.
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THP01 Development and Validation of a Fast Cryocooler Maintenance System 301
  • V. Nuttens, E. Forton, T. Lamon, Y. Paradis
    IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
  • A. Zhukovsky
    M.I.T. Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, USA
  At IBA, we have been developing and testing new systems to simplify cryocooler maintenance at a minimal cost (material, interruption of service). A local heating system has been designed to heat-up both stages of a cryocooler to room temperature while keeping the cold mass at a low temperature. The heating system has to fulfill severe requirements such as high power density, compatibility with vacuum and low temperature, and easy operation. The whole system has been designed and tested in a dedicated test bench and then duplicated onto a full-size superconducting coil. It has been extensively tested under different conditions to prove that the heating system is robust and reliable and has no impact on the superconducting coil performance.  
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THP02 Planning Considerations for Radioisotope Production Cyclotron Projects - Regulatory Feedback 303
  • A.N. Alwani
    CNSC, Ottawa, Canada
  Over the last ten years, there has been a significant increase in projects to build, operate or upgrade cyclotrons in Canada. This is largely driven by their increased use for the production of radioisotopes. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission regulates the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security and the environment in Canada. Its mandate includes the oversight of particle accelerators. The CNSC regulates the full life cycle of such facilities, with regulatory oversight though construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning activities. This paper outlines common practices for such projects, highlighting the particular aspects that should be considered in the early stages of project planning and providing examples of best practices and challenges that, if properly addressed, help ensure continued safe operation of the facility through its entire life cycle. The paper discusses the necessary elements of effective planning for such projects, touching on layout and space considerations; workload projection and maximum research capacity; shielding penetrations; cooling water circuit activity; storage of active components; management of radioactive waste from cyclotron and processing labs; construction and commissioning project management; integration of equipment safety systems and building safety systems; nuclear ventilation and filtration options; and strategies for staffing and training.  
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THP03 Operation and Maintenance of RF System of 520 MeV TRIUMF Cyclotron 307
  • N.V. Avreline, T. Au, C.D. Bartlett, I.V. Bylinskii, B. Jakovljevic, V. Zvyagintsev
    TRIUMF, Canada's National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Vancouver, Canada
  • C.D. Bartlett
    University of Victoria, Victoria BC, Canada
  1 MW CW 23 MHz RF system of the TRIUMF 520 MeV Cyclotron has been in operation for over 40 years. Continuous development of the RF power amplifiers, the waveguide system and of the measurement and protection devices provides reliable operation and improves the performance of the RF System. In this article, operation and maintenance procedure of this RF system are analyzed and recent as well as future upgrades are being analyzed and discussed. In particular, we discuss the improvements of the transmission line's VSWR monitor and their effect on the protection of the RF system against RF breakdowns and sparks. We discuss the new version of input circuit that was installed, tested and is currently used in the final stage of RF power amplifier. We analyze various schematics and configurations of the Intermediate Power Amplifier (IPA) to be used in the future. The thermo-condition improvements of the Dee voltage probe's rectifiers are described.  
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THP04 Status of the COSY/Jülich Injector Cyclotron JULIC 310
  • H.P. May, M. Bai, O. Felden, R. Gebel
    FZJ, Jülich, Germany
  The institute for nuclear physics IKP-4 at the Forschungszentrum Jülich operates the accelerator facility COSY with the isochronous cyclotron JULIC as the pre-accelerator, the cooler synchrotron COSY/Jülich and various experimental facilities for accelerator research and experimental hadron physics developments. The cyclotron has reached in spring 2016, since first beam in 1968, in total about 285000 hours of operation. The ongoing program at the facility foresees increasing usage as a test facility for accelerator research and detector development for realization of FAIR and other novel experiments. In parallel to the operation of COSY the cyclotron beam alone is also used for irradiation and nuclide production for fundamental research. Experience with pulsed ion sources for JULIC enables the development of a dedicated pulsed 100 keV source for protons and negative ions as a contribution to the extra low energy anti-proton synchrotron project ELENA at CERN's anti proton decelerator AD. A brief overview of the activities at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, the cooler synchrotron COSY and its injector cyclotron JULIC, with focus on recent technical developments, will be presented.  
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THP05 Beam Intensity Modulation Capabilities for Varian's ProBeam® Isochronous Cyclotron 313
  • S. Busold, H. Röcken
    VMS-PT, Troisdorf, Germany
  Varian's ProBeam 250 MeV superconducting proton cyclotron is an isochronous cyclotron for radiological applications using pencil beam scanning mode and thus provides continuous beam (at its fundamental frequency of 72 MHz). In its clinical operation mode up to 800 nA of proton beam are specified and routinely extracted. Even more can be extracted in technical mode. The cold cathode Penning ion source provides enough protons to reach this current, and a layer-to-layer intensity modulation of the scanned beam is realized with an internal electrostatic deflector, which is used to vary the extracted beam current between maximum and zero. However, for research applications there is sometimes the request for higher flexibility, in particular for higher possible beam intensities and faster beam intensity modulation. In order to explore possibilities of the machine for such research modes, experimental investigations have been performed: Pulsed beams with repetition rates of up to 2 kHz and variable pulse lengths down to 4 μs as well as peak currents during pulse of up to 30 μA are in the accessible range with only changes at power supply level.  
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THP06 Recent Ion Source Developments for VARIAN's ProBeam® Cyclotron 316
  • S. Busold, H. Röcken
    VMS-PT, Troisdorf, Germany
  • A.S. Partowidjojo, J.M. Schippers
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  The cold cathode Penning ionization gauge (PIG) type proton source of the VARIANÂ’s ProBeam® 250 MeV superconducting isochronous cyclotron suffers from the usual cathode/chimney erosion during operation. Furthermore, a relatively high hydrogen gas flow is needed to generate a proton beam in the μA range, which induces conditions for RF operation below optimum. In the quest to increase cathode/chimney life time and thereby directly extend service intervals, thus reducing the total cost of ownership, several experimental investigations have been performed at a dedicated test bench at PSI, Switzerland, including material studies, a detailed operation analysis and switching to a hot cathode design.  
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THP07 Development of Control System for 10 MeV Cyclotron 319
  • M. Hassani, H. Afarideh, Y. Ghorashinejad
    AUT, Tehran, Iran
  AmirKabir University of Technology is developing a 10 MeV cyclotron to produce radio isotopes. In order to operate the cyclotron stably, all sub-systems in the cyclotron are controlled and monitored consistently. The control system has been developed based on PLC and the operation is monitored by HMI permanently. Also, the control console located in the control room, provides data logging and controlling different steps of operation by the operator. In addition, the system can be remotely accessed over the network to monitor the status of cyclotron easily. The configuration of the control system for 10MeV cyclotron will be presented in this paper.  
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THP09 Mechanical Aspects of the LNS Superconducting Cyclotron Upgrade 322
  • G. Gallo, L. Allegra, G. Costa, E. Messina, E. Zappalà
    INFN/LNS, Catania, Italy
  The Superconducting Cyclotron (CS) is a three sectors compact accelerator with a wide operating diagram, capable of accelerating heavy ions with q/A from 0.1 to 0.5 up to energies from 2 to 100 MeV/u. The proposed upgrade to increase the light ion beam intensity by means of extraction by stripping implies many modifications of the median plane. The main activities of the mechanical upgrade are: the actuation of the new magnetic channels for the extraction by stripping and the realization of the two extraction modes, by stripping and by electrostatic deflection. For the magnetic channels and compensating iron bars, we are studying the problems of mechanical handling. To obtain the two extraction modes, we are trying to design a new set that allows for the exhange of two devices: electrostatic deflectors and and stripper with its magnetic channels for stripping extraction.  
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THP10 Status and Upgrade of the Cryogenic Plant of the LNS Superconducting Cyclotron After 25 Years of Operation 325
  • F. Noto, M. Cafici, A. Carbonaro, A. Di Stefano, A. Pagano, F. Speziale
    INFN/LNS, Catania, Italy
  The Superconducting Cyclotron (CS) is a compact ac-celerator with three sectors with a wide operating dia-gram, capable of accelerating heavy ions with values q/A from 0.1 to 0.5 up to energies from 10 to 80 MeV/u. An upgrade of the CS superconducting magnet is in progress to extend the capability of the machine to high intensity beam facilities. In this paper we describe the status of CS Cryostat and its Cryogenic Plant after 25 years of continuous opera-tions at 4.2 K with the exception of the stop of about one year for the tenth test and the stop for restoring of the liquefier and the main issues happened during that long time. We describe the last complex and demanding pro-cedure for the revamping of the He liquefier, its ancillary parts, other cryogenic parts of the CS, with special atten-tion about the Piping and Instrumentation, gas analysis, Heat Exchangers, LN2 transfer lines, Human-Machine Interface, vacuum system for thermal isolation, GHe re-covery system and the optimization for the consumption of electrical power. In conclusion we describe some hypothesis about the future upgrade of the Cryogenic system and the new Cry-ostat of the CS, in special way we analyse an approach to redefine the interconnection, piping boundary line and cryogenic diagnostic.  
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THP11 Improvement of the NIRS-930 Cyclotron for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy 328
  • S. Hojo, K. Katagiri, M. Nakao, A. Noda, K. Noda, A. Sugiura, T. Wakui
    NIRS, Chiba-shi, Japan
  In recent years, the production of radionuclides for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy (TRT) with the NIRS-930 cyclotron has been one of the most important activities in National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). In the production of 211At, for example, a target material with low melting point is irradiated with a high intensity beam. A vertical beam line have the advantage in irradiation with low-melting-point target. Therefore a vertical beam line has been modified for the production of radionuclides. This line was used for neutron source with beryllium target. The beam intensity and beam energy are important parameters for the effective production of radionuclide for TRT. In order to increase beam intensity, the acceleration phase and injection energy have been optimized by measuring beam phase. The beam energy has been measured by TOF and adjusted by tuning the acceleration frequency. Those studies and improvement are reported.  
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Status of the RCNP Cyclotron Facility  
  • M. Fukuda, S. Hara, K. Hatanaka, K. Kamakura, H.W. Koay, T. Kume, S. Morinobu, K. Nagayama, T. Saito, K. Shimada, H. Tamura, R. Yamanoshita, Y. Yasuda, T. Yorita
    RCNP, Osaka, Japan
  • H. Ueda
    Okayama University, Okayama, Japan
  The Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) cyclotron facility is equipped with the K140 AVF cyclotron and K400 ring cyclotron. The cascade cyclotron system provides high quality beams for precise experiments in nuclear physics using the high resolution spectrograph Grand-RAIDEN. Recently secondarily produced DC muons has become available. Radio-isotope production is regularly carried out for fundamental research in nuclear chemistry and medicine. The upgrade program of the cyclotron facility was carried out to reduce deterioration of cyclotron equipment and to construct new beam lines for experiments using muons and high quality beams. A bending magnet using a high-temperature superconducting wire was developed for switching between two beam lines. Design of a new type of high-temperature superconducting compact AVF cyclotron is underway to promote targeted alpha-particle therapy.  
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THP13 Study on Energy Upgrade and Beam Transmission Efficiencies for RIKEN K-70 AVF Cyclotron 332
  • J. Ohnishi, A. Goto, M. Kase
    RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Japan
  • Y. Kotaka
    CNS, Saitama, Japan
  The RIKEN K-70 AVF cyclotron has been operated since 1989 and is used as a stand-alone machine and an injector to the RI-beam factory (RIBF). It is operated only in the RF harmonics (H) equal to 2 presently, and the maximum beam energies are restricted to be within 14 MeV for protons and 12.5 MeV/u for M/Q = 2 ions. In order to meet the usersÂ’ requests of beam energy upgrade, the beam simulation studies on the H=1 operation were made, and the central region was modified; these results were already reported in this conference of 2010. In this paper, we will analyze the difference in the transmission efficiency between the beam simulation and measured data in the H=2 operation after the modification of the central region. Moreover, we will also mention the result on the acceleration test of protons at higher energies in the H=1 operation.  
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THP14 Design of RF Pick-up for the Cyclotron 336
  • D.H. Ha, J.-S. Chai, M. Ghergherehchi, H.S. Kim, J.C. Lee, S.C. Mun, H. Namgoong, S. Shin
    SKKU, Suwon, Republic of Korea
  The radio-frequency (RF) pick-up for RFT-30 cyclotron which was located in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) was designed by Sungkyunkwan University in Korea. This paper covers proper position of RF pick-up and things to consider when designing. Our RF pick-up antenna is designed for RFT-30, but approach to design process can be used any RF pick-up antenna design. This paper provide some tendency graph according to position of RF pick-up.  
poster icon Poster THP14 [2.010 MB]  
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THP15 Analysis of the Plasma Characteristics for Beam Current Optimization for TR-13 Cyclotron 339
  • W.J. Jun, J.-S. Chai, M. Ghergherehchi, D.H. Ha, H.S. Kim, J.C. Lee, S.C. Mun, H. Namgoong, Y.H. Yeon
    SKKU, Suwon, Republic of Korea
  There is a TR-13 cyclotron that extracts energy of 13 MeV protons which is located in Sungkyunkwan University. The components of the whole cyclotron are so old that cannot reproduce the situation that had been operated generally. So the researchers in this laboratory were eager to improve the technical problems of the components and finally optimize the beam profile. The finally extracted beam current is critically depends on the initially extracted beam from the ion source injection system (ISIS). The ISIS is composed of several electrical instruments. The voltage or current which is applied to these components can affect the finally extracted beam profile. However, the original values for the input voltage or current is almost fixed to special values that had been written in the operation manual. It means that the bad condition of this cyclotron cannot be matched for these values which had been conducted in the best condition of the operation. So, by using the programmable logic controller (PLC), it is possible to use varying inputs in various conditions, and the beam current is able to be stabilized much better than applying the constant input values. Finally, this paper would show the tendency of the plasma generation in terms of modulating the applying input values which occurs inside the ion source chamber. It represents the plasma characteristics that critically influence the beam current.  
poster icon Poster THP15 [2.407 MB]  
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THP16 Beam Based Calibration Measurements at the PSI Cyclotron Facility 342
  • C. Baumgarten
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  The PSI cyclotron facility is in operation since four decades. Even though the design details of the original machine are well documented, doubts may remain, if all changes of the most relevant devices during 40 years of operation are known with certainty. Furthermore some measurements like magnetic field mappings and central region alignment measurements can be done only during the construction and assembly phase either for mechanical reasons, due to limited shutdown or maintenance periods or because of the activation of components. Therefore it is important to develop methods that allow to check important parameters during beam operation without a disassembling of components. An effective method to test the consistency of the data is based on the combination of beam tracking simulations and beam based measurements. We present some beam based alignment and calibration measurements concerning collimator positions, Dee voltage distributions, turn patterns, beam energy and trim coil field profiles using measurements of radial probes, phase pickups and profile monitors.  
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THP17 Automated Documentation of Tunes in the Beam Lines of the COMET Cyclotron 345
  • R. Dölling
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  The proton beam from the COMET cyclotron can be transported to three gantries and two horizontal lines. The beam energy is adjusted by a variable degrader. For each branch several "tunes" are defined, each listing the previously evaluated magnet, degrader and collimator settings for a certain beam energy. The beam quality at the end stations is routinely checked meticulously in the frame of treatment quality assurance. Independently of this, software has been developed (in the frame of the machine control system) to collect, for series of tunes, all available information on the beam and on the machine settings in the active beam line. Routinely used, this allows a close observation of the stability and reproducibility of the machine and keeps ready consistent data sets for detailed studies. This tool can also be used to collect, in a short space of time, extensive data for beam dynamics simulations with OPAL or optimisation procedures based thereon, to verify the beam line performance after changes to hardware or software, or to check the functionality of the beam diagnostics. The data set characterising a single tune is organised systematically, allowing to share data viewers with standard beam diagnostics.  
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THP18 Suppression of RF Radiation Originating from the Flattop Cavity in the PSI Ring Cyclotron 348
  • M. Schneider, A. Adelmann, N. Pogue, L. Stingelin
    PSI, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  In the PSI Ring cyclotron, protons are accelerated from 72 MeV to 590 MeV. In several upgrade programs, the beam current was increased from the initial design value of 100 μA up to 2.4 mA. The rf-system of this separated sector cyclotron consists of 4 copper cavities running at 50 MHz for the main acceleration. For the purpose of increasing the phase acceptance of the Ring, an aluminum flattop cavity is operated at a gap voltage of 555 kVp at the 3rd harmonic frequency. As a result of the progressively increased flattop voltage, this cavity was pushed toward its mechanical and electrical limits. As a consequence rf-power is leaking into the cyclotrons vacuum chamber, which in turn caused several problems. A visible effect was the formation of plasma in the vacuum chamber *. In the last shutdown, an attempt was made to reduce the radiated rf-power. On the vacuum sealing between the flattop cavity and sector magnet 6, a shim was installed which reduces the gap for the beam from 60mm to 25mm in height. Results of this intervention will be presented and compared with finite element model simulations **.
* N.J. Pogue et al.
NIM-A: Volume 821, 11 June 2016, pp. 87 - 92.
** N.J. Pogue et al.
NIM-A: Volume 828, 21 August 2016, pp. 156 - 162.
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THP19 Operational Status of the University of Washington Medical Cyclotron Facility 351
  • R.C. Emery, E.F. Dorman
    University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
  The University of Washington Medical Cyclotron Facility (UWMCF) is built around a Scanditronix MC-50 compact cyclotron that was commissioned 1983 and that has been in continual use since. Its primary purpose is the production of 50.5 MeV protons for fast neutron therapy. While this proton energy is too low for proton therapy, it is ideal for research in small animal models. In addition to the protons used for fast neutron therapy and proton therapy research, UWMCF is able to accelerate other particles at variable energies. This makes it ideal for medical isotope research, including isotopes such as 211At, 186Re, and 117mSn that are being developed to target and treat metastatic disease at the cellular level. Most recent upgrades to the facility have been to the control systems. The original accelerator and therapy control systems were run on a DEC PDP-11 with a custom centralized i/o system built around the Z80 processor and chipset. Over the last 10 years we have continually been upgrading the controls while remaining operational, moving to a distributed system developed with the open source Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit.  
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